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Health Hazards of Air Pollution:


The adverse health effects of air pollution are well established and have been reported in research studies for over 30 years.

However, multiple variables make pinning down exact health outcomes to specific air pollution exposure very complicated. These variables include concentrations of air pollution and its various components, exposure time and individual response. For example, there is no specific health data available on air pollution exposure corresponding to length of an individual is stay in any given location (say, for example an afternoon in Delhi? 2-4 years? A lifetime?) Nevertheless, there is much we do know and as scientific measurements become more sophisticated and evidence mounts, we gain better information about how air pollution and its various components affect our health.

In March 2014 the World Health Organization reported that in 2012, seven million people died worldwide as a result of air pollution exposure. The finding more than doubled the WHO is previous estimates on mortality due to air pollution exposure and placed air pollution as the world is largest single environmental health risk.

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Perennial Landscapes with Bamboo Plants


Improve Your Landscape With Bamboo Plants

Because of its unique look, multiple varieties and minimal care requirements, it’s easy to be a fan of lucky bamboo. However, some varieties of perennials and bamboo are extremely aggressive when it comes to growth, so care must be taken when choosing these plants for your landscape. If an aggressive variety is not what you are looking for, there are clumping varieties available that do not spread.


What Is Bamboo?

Like the words grass and vegetable, bamboo is a catch all term that covers a number of different kinds of plants. Bamboo plants are considered perennial grasses, and typically have a fast growing woody stem and are considered one of the fastest growing of all plants.

While bamboo is most common throughout Asia, 3 species are native to North America, and 100 other non-native varieties can grow quite well in the U.S. Size and growth habits differ from bamboo plant to bamboo plant, ranging from tall tree-like plants that seem to go on forever to ground cover plants.

Bamboo Plant Types

There are basically two types of bamboo plants: clumping and running.

Running bamboo plants require large areas to accommodate their growth habit and will also require root pruning once a year if you hope to have any control over the plant. Without pruning the roots once a year, any other plants nearby will quickly be crowded out and overtaken by the bamboo.

Clumping bamboo plants grow much slower and consist of tight clusters that grow from a root ball at the center of the plant. Unlike their faster growing cousin, clumping bamboo varieties typically grow between two and 12 inches each year.

Growing Bamboo Plants

The amount of sun required to successfully grow bamboo depends on the variety, however all varieties have a common need of regular watering for best results. Avoid letting your plant stand in water however, otherwise it will likely die.

Since bamboo is a type of grass, it will benefit from fertilizer similar to that used on your lawn. For best results, choose a fertilizer with at least a nitrogen rating of 21. If available, consider using organic fertilizer.

How to Grow Running Bamboo Plants

Phyllostachys bamboos are the running variety most folks are familiar with. These are the bamboo plants most folks have seen on television and in books that have been known to grow as tall as 70 feet and have stems up to 6 inches wide. These plants grow very fast, are strong, and have an aggressive spreading nature and can survive quite well in hardiness zones 5-10.

They are available in multiple colors, with some of the more common being yellow, green, and even black. Their rapid growth habit and their ability to spread aggressively make them an excellent option for folks who prefer a natural privacy screen in their landscape.

However, Phyllostachys bamboo will require annual maintenance to keep them under control, otherwise they will take over your landscape, and worse, probably your neighbor’s too. You can use a barrier to help keep the spread in check. To reach their growth potential, Phyllostachys bamboo should get six hours of direct sunlight each day. Maintenance requirements include pruning the roots, getting rid of dead stems, and some shaping to keep it looking its best.



How to Grow Clumping Bamboo Plants

Clumping bamboo plants come in a number of varieties, and some do better in some environments than others. Bambusa for example prefers hot, southern climates where Borinda and Chusquea prefer cooler and milder climates. Fargesia bamboos work best for folks who live in colder climates, and will perform quite well in the cooler Zone 5 that reaches all the way to the Canadian border.

Unlike their faster growing cousin, clumping bamboo prefers shade and partial shade, and comes in a number of colors and sizes. clumping bamboo is easily pruned into the shape you prefer without any worry of damaging the plant. Outer canes can be pruned as close to the ground as possible if the plant clump has grown too wide. You can cut low growing ground-cover varieties all the way to the ground in the spring to avoid your plants from having a ragged, overgrown appearance. This will encourage new growth that will be shorter, thicker and better looking.

Growing Indoor Bamboo Plants

You can grow bamboo in containers,but running bamboo varieties will outgrow their container eventually which means you either have to repot them or divide them every couple of years. In addition, container grown bamboo will require adequate water, proper water drainage, and regular fertilizing just like any other container grown plant.

Many Bamboos that Aren’t Bamboo at All

If you’ve ever seen a plant called “Lucky Bamboo” you might be shocked to learn it’s not a bamboo plant at all. Lucky Bamboo is actually a variety of lily and it’s official name is Dracaena sanderiana.

Another plant often believed to be bamboo that isn’t is Nandina, which is often called heavenly bamboo. Despite the confusing name, Nandinas are actually a variety of Barberry. These plants are quite popular in the southeastern US because of their hardiness and low maintenance. Wild varieties of heavenly bamboo are considered invasive and may be restricted in some areas, so be sure to check for any restrictions in your area before planting it.

8 Different Types of Bamboos


Bamboo belongs to the grass family and is technically called the Poaceae. As per proper scientific resources, there are about 1500 different types of bamboo. Though bamboo is a common plant that grows in most regions, they are best suited to the tropical climate. Places those are dry or wet for the most part of the year. Depending on the climatic conditions different species of plants grow in different parts of the world. Bamboo is largely seen in the Asian, American and Australian regions. Listed below are the major types of bamboos. Let us have a look at it:


Types of Bamboo:

Golden Bamboo:

Golden Bamboo, also known as fishpole bamboo, monk’s belly bamboo, and by many other names, is the right type of Bamboo if you are planning for an ornamental garden. The botanical name of the golden bamboo is Phyllostachys aurea.

Sasa Palmata:

This species of bamboo belongs to the low-growing type. Unlike most other bamboo species they have larger leaves which make them shade-tolerant ones. This type of bamboo is largely found in Japan and on an average these plants can grow up to 7 feet. With the scientific name Sasa Palmata, it is also known as the broad-leaved bamboo.

Golden Chinese Timber Bamboo:

The Golden Chinese Timber Bamboo, also scientifically known as Genus Phyllostachys, are bamboos that have beautiful golden-yellow canes, which is usually in different shades of green in other species. They are very much attractive, and as the name suggests, they are usually found in and around the Chinese region.

Fountain bamboo:

Fountain bamboos are usually seen in the Asian regions and are scientifically known as Fargesia. They are found predominantly in the Himalayan and the Tibetan regions. They are also unofficially called the ‘blue fountains bamboo’ due to the blue clumps that are found on the canes of the bamboo.

Black Bamboo:

Black Bamboo is scientifically known as Phyllostachys Nigra. Just like the fountain bamboo, the black bamboo has a reason for its name. The canes of the bamboo are found with feathery leaves and jet black culms, and that is the reason they take the name Black Bamboo. It is predominantly found in the Hunan Province of China.

Veitch’s Bamboo:

Veitch’s Bamboo is scientifically called Sasa veitchii. These bamboos are predominantly found in the regions of Japan. They don’t grow tall but are quite stronger as they have fast running rhizomes in the stem. They grow in natural green color but then the color changes to light papery brown when they become matured plants.

Yushania Maculata:

This Manculata bamboo is often considered as a rare collection and is known by the scientific name Yushania Manchulata. They have stems that are blue in color, and the stem is covered with reddish culms. This species proves to be one of the toughest types of bamboos.

Muriel’s Bamboo:

Scientifically known as the Fargesia Murielae, this is widely known as the umbrella bamboo. It is also a part of the flowering family of bamboos. They have yellow canes and are predominantly found in the regions of Asian and Japanese soils.


Bamboo Varieties

Things you ought to know about Perennial Plants

Perennial Plants


Among the various ways in which plants are classified, one classification is based on the life of the plants or more precisely the cycle in which they bloom and die. So there is always a period in between and depending on that longevity plants are classified as Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials. So here we are going to see about one such type that is the perennials, the life of perennial plants and facts about such plants.

Perennial Plants

Life of perennial plants:

Perennials plants are the plants that can sustain for two seasons. The bloom during the season produce fruits and continue to live without dying. Most of these perennial plants live for more than two seasons. In simple words, a plant or flower that has a lifespan of more than two years is called perennial plant.  Some of the facts about perennial plants are as follow.

Other Characteristics and facts:

  • Though the life of the plant is fixed for two seasons, most of the perennial plants live for more than three seasons. That is with proper care it is hard for them to die, that is the reason why they are called the perennial ones.
  • Unlike the other types in the classification that bloom and die over a period, these plants do not have anything like that. They can live even after one vegetation cycle is over and thereby during the lifespan, they rest a lot in the middle. That is after one season is over.
  • For instance, mango is a perennial plant and gives fruits over seasons, but most plans that we see gives the best quality fruits in the alternative season, in between they just go through a slumber.
  • Having said so much about perennials, you think perennials don’t die? Some of the perennials do die. Herbaceous perennials die during the winter season. When the spring returns, the flowers get back to life. During this slumber they don’t produce new leaves or bear fruits, they just exist. They will get back to work only when the spring reappears.
  • In case if you are into gardening and you have perennials wait for the flower to bloom and stop. Once the blooming and fruit-bearing period are over, dig the place, cut them to pieces and replant them. They will grow well when the spring returns. This is one method of growing your vegetation.
  • In general, the blooming period stays for 3 to 4 weeks that is a month or so. It may extend to a maximum one more week and mot more than that. The fruits start dying and the ones that come to life during this season are usually tasteless and doesn’t match the usual quality.

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